Surveillance on the Internet

The Internet has presented citizens around the world with a new medium with which to communicate. The Internet also referred to as cyberspace has truly developed into a new kind of space. In this space, everyone can have a voice. Unlike real space, in cyberspace, it is very easy to reach a large audience without having to seek out the services of a publishing agency. The Internet has also revolutionized peer-to-peer communication. E-mail and instant messaging has provided a faster, more efficient and often more convenient form of peer-to-peer communication. However, along with new methods of communication, has emerged a new medium for criminals. Criminals have found it easier and often safer to communicate via e-mail as opposed to the telephone as this avoids the possibility of wiretaps. Such instances of criminal use of the Internet include instances of espionage, and drug trafficking. The Internet has also led to the creation of a new kind of crime — cyber crime. [...]

The Economic History of Pittsburgh: From Steel to Silicon

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Pittsburgh became a leader in America’s industrial production. This industrial production dominated Pittsburgh’s economy for over a century. This attracted many foreigners to Pittsburgh which had a demand for unskilled workers. However, Pittsburgh eventually lost its position as one of the worlds largest industrial producers and became a rising city for businesses in the field of information technology. As a result, Pittsburgh shifted from a city of mostly blue-collar workers to a city of mostly white-collar workers. [...]

How Revolution Shaped the Cold War World

Revolution was an important theme throughout the Cold War. Revolutions begat, molded and then finally brought an end to the Cold War. In 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution forced Vladimir Lenin, the new communist leader, to withdraw from the World War I on the side of the Western Allies and to sign a separate peace agreement with Germany. The suspicions that this aroused among the Allies were the seeds of the Cold War. In 1949, the New Democratic Revolution of China ended the Kuomintang (KMT) rule and established a communist government, thus guaranteeing the existence of the Cold War. Throughout its existence, the Cold War appeared to be something that was constantly present and unchanging. However, revolutions in Europe and Asia after 1953 continued to shape the Cold War until revolution inevitably destroyed in 1989. [...]


After 1960, there was a new wave of American immigration from Asian countries. Prior to this, immigration came primarily from Europe and the western hemisphere. This change in immigration patterns was in part due to the Immigration Act of 1965, which was passed by President Johnson. This changed the system that favored European immigrants to one that allowed for substantial immigration from Third World countries. My genealogy will demonstrate this trend as it applies to immigration from the Philippines. [...]

Cracks Behind the Lines

During the 1960′s, the way in which the United States was waging war in Vietnam caused some Americans to question America’s role in the Cold War.� As a result of this, several groups of Americans challenged the American government by bringing into question the morality of the Vietnam Conflict as well as the Cold War in general.� These groups articulated their beliefs in The Port Huron Statement (1962) by the Students for a Democratic Society, The May Second Movement (1966) by the Progressive Labor Party and the Declaration of Independence from the War in Vietnam (1967) by Martin Luther King Jr. [...]

White Man’s Burden

Rudyard Kipling wrote The White Man’s Burden specifically to encourage America to follow an imperialist policy toward the Philippines.� It appeared in McClure’s Magazine in February of 1899.� At this time, the Philippine-American War had just begun and Spain had ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.� There was much debate about what America should do with its newly acquired territories.� Some people wanted to break from the traditional forms of expansionism by converting the Philippines into a colony instead of a state.� The anti-imperialists believed that such imperialism was morally wrong and impractical.� When Kipling advocated imperialism in The White Man’s Burden, it inspired angry objections often in the form parodies.� Three such examples are The Brown Man’s Burden by Henry Labouch, The Poor Man’s Burden by Howard S. Taylor and The Black Man’s Burden by John White Chadwick. [...]

Diem’s Failing Popularity

From the time the United States secured his position as the political leader of South Vietnam, in 1955, Ngo Dinh Diem never commanded much support. �As he continued to his popularity declined while simultaneously popularity for the National Liberation Front (NLF) increased.� There are several explanations for this. [...]

America’s One Man Democracy in Vietnam

“America ignored the Geneva Accords and propped up the government of Ngo Dinh Diem in order to promote democracy and to oppose tyranny.” Ironically, American efforts actually worked in opposing directions.�� This is a very true statement.� America wanted to prevent the spread of communism by ensuring that Ho Chi Minh did not extend communism to all of Vietnam.� To do this, America sought to establish a stable non-communist government based on popular support in South Vietnam.� [...]

American Imperialism in the Philippines

In 1898, in an effort to free Cuba from the oppression of its Spanish colonizers, America captured the Philippines.� This brought about questions of what America should do with the Philippines.� Soon, controversy ensued both in the American political arena as well as among its citizens.� Throughout its history, America had always been expansionistic, but it had always limited itself to the North American continent.� Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, however, there emerged a drive to expand outside of the continent.� When America expanded to the Philippines, the policy it followed was a stark break from past forms of expansionism.� Despite much controversy, America followed the example of the imperialistic nations in Europe and sought to conquer the Philippines as an imperialist colony that they would rule either directly or indirectly. [...]

Dixie Land Looks Away

When President Franklin Pierce convinced the Democrats in congress to pass the Kansas Nebraska Act in 1854, the political party system was affected in a way that divided the nation. In the 1844 election and of the people of New York, approximately 49 percent of those who voted, voted for the Democratic Party, approximately 48 percent voted for the Whig Party and approximately 3 percent voted for the Liberty/Free Soil Party. In 1848, the percentage of Democratic votes decreased to 25 percent and the Liberty/Free Soil votes rose to 27 percent. In the 1856 election, the Whig and Liberty/Free Soil Parties ceased to exist, the Republican and American/Constitutional Union Parties replaced them. In that election, the Democratic Party received 33 percent of the votes, the Republican Party received 46 percent of the votes and the American/Constitutional Union Party received 21 percent of the votes. In 1860, the Republicans again dominated the polls, this time even gaining a majority. The Democratic Party received 46 percent of the votes, the Republican Party received 54 percent of the votes and the American/Constitutional Union Party received none. It is also important to note the party affiliations of the state governors of the nation. In the northern states in 1859, the governors were all Democrats. In 1855 to 1856, the governors were Republican and Know Nothing but were mostly Republican. By 1860, they were all Republican. In the south in the period from 1850 to 1860, all of the state governors (except of Kentucky) were Democrats. This shows that by 1860, the American Party System was on the verge of dividing along regional lines. In the period from 1850 to 1859, the only national party (Democrat) begins to fade away in the north. The passage of the Kansas Nebraska Act caused the Second Party System — which consisted of Whigs and Democrats — to collapse. The Republicans replaced the Whigs and when this happened, some southern states think of secession and this eventually leads to civil war. [...]