Dreaming in REM and NREM Sleep

The most fascinating part of human sleep, at least to writers and poets is dreaming. Sleep in humans is characterised by five distinct brain states, stages one through four, collectively referred to as non-REM (NREM) sleep and REM or rapid eye movement sleep. The term stage W is often used to refer to the wake state. REM sleep is characteristically different from NREM sleep in that the brain activation patterns more closely resemble brain activation in the waking state. In addition, humans experience muscle atonia during REM sleep, which is not present in NREM sleep. When researchers first studied this phenomenon, they noticed that when woken, subjects reported dreaming during REM sleep. This led to the theory that REM is responsible for dreaming. However, it had also been observed that dreams could occur during NREM sleep as well. Further research has shown that dreams occurring in REM sleep are quantitatively and qualitatively different from dreams occurring in NREM sleep. This paper will investigate those differences as well as the underlying brain mechanisms that accompany dream production. […]

Artificial Intelligence from a Psychological Perspective

Many problems that involve artificial intelligence approaches to a solution such as speech and handwriting recognition do not require one to implement concepts such as emotion or self-concept into the system in order to solve the problem successfully. However, these are concepts that are important to intelligence that have so far been left out of artificial intelligence research either because of their irrelevance to specific problems or because no way has been found to model such concepts. […]

On Carrying a Red Fuzzy Purse

Social norms are a thing that we seem to overlook, yet something that plays a rather significant role in our lives. I imagine that many norms or conventions arise out of practicality, for example, facing a certain direction in the elevator. After that, I suspect that they become conventions out of a combination of social comparison and social learning. When we do not know how we are supposed to behave in certain situations, we look to others for cues on what to do. Also, once we have seen how others behave, we are more likely to imitate them if there were no adverse social consequences. It is probably also important to note whose conventions we follow. It is probably the case that we are more likely to follow conventions of people that are similar to us or people that we look up to. […]